The authors have particularly benefited from conversations with Patrick Széll and Jacob Werksman and are very grateful to Duncan French, Urfan Khaliq, J. Wettestad and Oran Young for commenting on previous projects in this article. They would also like to thank the secretariats of a number of environmental agreements for providing various materials. You are solely responsible for any defects. 36 The types of institutional agreements and agreements used to set up and operate the RTSOP can be grouped at the program level and (2) at the project level. The nature of the agreement depends heavily on the objectives and functions of the program. The program-level agreements are intended to clarify the “great intent of image and purpose” of the program, to define a vision and objectives of the program, and to focus more on the organizational structure. These types of agreements and agreements define a formal organizational structure of the program. Program-level agreements are more likely to be used when regional partners consider consolidating their operations into a single entity. Proposed RTSPs to maintain control of local activities will generally be based on project-level agreements between a subset of participating agencies. Program-level agreements must go beyond project-specific or corridor-specific requirements where improvements are made, while project-level agreements are designed to meet the needs of a project or corridor. Program-level agreements tend to focus on longer and broader framework conditions, while project-level agreements are short-term and long enough to implement a number of improvements on a corridor.
Program-level agreements can be formal or in-training and, as a rule, developed from long-term relationships between stakeholders. Project-level agreements are almost always formal and constitute a contractual agreement between two companies. PROGRAM-LEVEL INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS The interview process identified three types of institutional agreements that are often used in the implementation of RTSOPs: “local partnerships,” “MOA” and “Cooperation Agreements.” Table 17 shows some of the elements usually included in agency agreements related to RTSOPs. Here you will find a brief description of the different types of institutional devices that are often used to set up and maintain RTSOPs. Appendix C provides examples of institutional agreements and agreements at the program and project levels that are used by different agencies. Local Partnerships Some sites have successfully used a partnership agreement to develop their RTSOP. In a partnership organization, no formal agreement is reached between the companies. Instead, local entities rely on existing relationships to launch a more formalized RTSOP. Typically, these partnerships develop through oral and/or unwritten agreements between two or more entities to define the program for the region. This type of agreement is based on mutual trust between agencies and has proven to be a successful approach when agencies have a long history of cooperation.